1621 - 1702
||Kittery, York Co. ME
||22 Apr 2012 |
||Margaret, b. ca 1622, Ireland , d. 1713, Kittery, York Co. ME |
||Kittery, York Co. ME
|>||1. Gilbert WARREN, b. 1654, Kittery, York Co. ME , d. 1733, Kittery, York Co. ME |
|>||2. Margaret WARREN, b. 1656, Kittery, York Co. ME , d. 1749, Dover, Stafford Co. NH |
|>||3. Grizel (Marie Madeline) WARREN, b. 6 Mar 1661/62, Kittery, York Co. ME , d. 26 Oct 1750, Montreal, Quebec, Canada |
|>||4. James WARREN, Jr., b. 1658, Berwick, York Co. ME , d. Abt 1725, York Co. ME |
|>||5. Jane WARREN, b. 1664, Kittery, York Co. ME |
||22 Apr 2012 |
- HIS BACKGROUND IN SCOTLAND
James was one of the (Scots) Royalist soldiers who was captured at the Battle of Dunbar, (near Berwick, Scotland) March 9 1650 during the English Civil War.
Having defeated the Royalists in England and beheaded the king in 1649, Oliver Cromwell proceeded to invade Scotland, the last kingdom remaining loyal to the Crown and, reaching Edinburgh after some skirmishes he marched his army to Dunbar, a town on the east coast of Scotland. General David Leslie in command of the Scottish troops had more troops than Cromwell, but they were undisciplined clansmen unused to war in its technical aspects and the Scottish general declined to give open battle hoping to starve out Cromwell then hemmed in on the narrow peninsula of Dunbar. Meanwhile the young King Charles had arrived from Holland and joined this motley military organization to the great joy of the clansmen and made himself popular by sharing their rough camp life.
Leslie's army was routed and Cromwell's cavalry pursued the disorganized Covenanters with great slaughter. The chief if not the only resistance to his onslaught was made by a regiment of Highlanders who fought with great desperation as they had learned from his conquest of Ireland the tales that Cromwell would put all men to the sword and thrust hot irons through women's breasts. Three thousand Scots fell in this disaster fighting hopelessly to the last, 10,000 were taken prisoner. About half of the latter were so exhausted and disabled by wounds that Cromwell immediately released them. He wrote that he had lost only twenty men in this battle and he had every reason to believe that the Lord had given him the victory.
James was one of the the 5,000 able-bodied prisoners that marched down to Durham cathedral with only 3,500 surviving the march and a diet of raw cabbage which killed with the "flux". The cathedral had been converted into a prison where these unfortunate Highlanders were destined to spend an indefinite period as captives of war.
Although the Cathedral offered a degree of shelter, the English failed to provide their prisoners with adequate food or fuel for heating. For a time, the prisoners kept warm by burning all of the woodwork in the Cathedral with the notable exception of Prior Castell's Clock in the South Transept. It is thought that they left the clock alone because it carries a thistle, the emblem of Scotland, on it.
After the battle, there was an order in Cromwell's council passed to deliver 900 prisoners for transportation to Virginia and 150 for New England. By the end of October, the cold, malnutrition and disease had resulted in the deaths of another 1,600 of the Scottish soldiers. The bodies of many of those who had died were simply thrown into a mass grave in the form of a trench running northwards from the Cathedral. The location of their remains was then forgotten for almost three centuries until rediscovered by workmen in 1946.
TRANSPORTED TO NEW ENGLAND
Selected as "well and sound and free of wound," James Warren was one of the 150 men who were transported from London to Boston, on the Unity, in November, 1650. James was initially sold (going price was 15 -30 pounds per man) into a number of years of indentured servitude, possibly spending some time at Hammersmith working at the Lynn/Saugus Ironworks near Boston or more likely was sold and taken to Kittery, ME where men were needed for the Great Works sawmill.
The prisoners were distributed throughout numerous towns in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in a kind of modified slavery or compulsory service which was to terminate in seven years. John Cotton had his qualms about this camouflaged slavery. In a letter to Cromwell dated Boston 28 July 1651 he said: "The Scots whom God delivered into your hands at Dunbarre and whereof sundry were sent hither, we have been desirous (as we could) to make their yoke easy. Such as were sick of the scurvey or other diseases have not wanted Physick and chyrugery. They have not been sold for slaves to perpetual servitude. But for 6 or 7 or 8 yeares as we do our own."
LIFE AFTER SERVITUDE
In Newichawannock between Thompson's Brook (Shorey's) and the Great Works River James was granted land 15 Aug. 1656. He received 50 acres with 48 poles (660') fronting Cow Cove where the "Pied Cow" dropped anchor in 1634, now part of the South Berwick Vaughn Woods Memorial.
James was the Commissioner for Kittery 5 July 1664. He was on the grand jury 28 Dec. 1665 and also 12 June 1666. He was again on jury duty 19 Aug. 1668. In 1670 Margaret and other Scots were admonished for using profane language and in 1674 James was bound to good behavior and was disciplined for abetting Richard Gibson.
On 6 Oct. 1662 James bought of John Davis a parcel of land "near the bridge" granted by the town of York in 1652 containing about 40 acres, but it is doubtful that he occupied this purchase. He may have cultivated it and harvested whatever crops he planted. James retained this property for 40 years until it was bequeathed to his eldest son Gilbert.
He signed a Kittery petition as a selectman 13 Apr. 1697. He signed a Berwick petition again as a selectman 4 Sept. 1697 and another 20 May 1698 requesting £20 for the maintenance of the ministry: "whereas the circumstance of the parish of Barwick continues as bad as, or rather more grievous than hitherto by reason of the not ceasing of the wars & the extreme deadness in trading." They were granted £15 for the maintenance of the ministry for the year beginning Sept. 1698 on 2 Dec. 1698. James then signed a Berwick petition for a township as a Berwick selectman 26 July 1700.
From The Highlander Magazine, Nov/Dec 2004. "Scottish Slaves in Colonial America" Part II by Diane Rapaport, p. 17.
"After his servitude ended, James Warren married an Irish woman and settled near the Great Works sawmill in Kittery, Maine. His friends Daniel Ferguson, John Taylor, Peter Grant and other former war prisoners from the ship Unity acquired farms nearby. Not surprisingly this area became known as 'the Parrish of Unity' and later Berwick, reputedly in honor of Warren's Scottish birthplace.
Warren seems to have been a natural leader in the Scottish community serving as a constable and selectman, but his outspoken ways sometimes offended Puritan sensibilities. In 1669 the Court admonished Warren, his wife and other Scotsmen "for using profane speeches in their common talk." He was punished in 1674 for "abetting a friend who made insolent remarks to the local militia commander" and in 1685 for "Contempt of Authority and abuse of the Constable" when Warren resisted seizure of "a small beast" for delinquent taxes.
Near the end of Warren's life the Indian wars had reduced Berwick to a state of poverty. Attacks destroyed homes, barns and mills; corn crops failed; families crowded into garrisons and survived only by charity and determination. Still, Warren owned land and he dreamed of a better life for his children when he signed his will with a shaky mark, leaving "all my lands to my sons and their Heirs forever."
Kittery which was in southern York Co. of Massachusetts Province, now Maine, an area which quickly became known as "Little Scotland". Berwick Parish was named after the old country town of Berwick, reputedly in honor of the birthplace of James warren, and probably of some of his neighbors. Berwick, Scotland is not far from the site of the Battle of Dunbar.
In Kittery, ME there was a Unity Parish, named for or by the prisoners, who were sent there to work in the sawmills. About fifteen Scotchmen worked there and many were friends and neighbors; their children intermarrying. They are:
Niven Agnew; James Barry; Alexander Cooper; William Furbush; Daniel Ferguson; Peter Grant; George Gray; William Gowen; David Hamilton; Thomas Holme; John Key; Alexander Maxwell; John Neal; John Ross; John Taylor;
William Thomson; and JAMES WARREN
JAMES WARREN'S WILL
James' will is recorded in Berwick, Massachusetts Province, (now Berwick, York Co. Maine), proved December 24, 1702. In it he names heirs, sons Gilbert, and James and daughters, Margaret, GRIZEL, and granddaughter, Jane Grant and grandson James Stagpole, wife Margaret and son James, Jr., executors.
"In the name of god Amen: James Warren Snr of the parish of Barwick in the town of Kittrey... Do make & ordain this my last will & testement as foloweth being sick & week of bodey but in good & perfect memory Viz...
1- I do give unto my son Gilbert Warren all yt tract of land which I bought of John Davis living in ye town ship of York to him & to his haires forever
2- I do give unto my son James warren all my other Lands marshes medoes buldings of all sorts Liing in ye town shep of Kettrey or elce whare to him & his haires for ever
3- I do Give to my Daughter Margrat Stagpole five Shiling
4- I do Give to by Daughter Grizel five Shilings-
5- I do Give to my Granddaughter Jane Grant five Shilings
6- I do Give to my Grandson James Stacpole- one hefer & one Ewe & a young fold-
7- I do Give unto Margrat waren my loveing wife all ye rest of my of my Estate it being moveabels for her Comfertabel mantainance and no legusi before mentioned to be demanded til her decse
8- I do Constitute & Appoint My liveing wife Margrat & my son James Waren to bee Executrix and Executor to this my will & testement made this ninth day of December one thousand seven hundred as wittness my hand-
James X Waren
Robert: X : Gray
James: A : Stacpole
An Invatary of the Estate of James Warren Late of Kittrey
Imp: to his waring Cloathes...... 03-00-00
to two Cows & two Hiffers of three years......12-00-00
to fourteen Sheep........... 04-04-00
to Six Swine and Six piggs......05-08-00
to the Dwelling house and the barn: and ye home Lot of Land...........80-00-00
to hundred Acres of Land and ten Acres of Marsh Lying
at whits Marsh.... 40-00-00
to two barrels & one hogshead.......
to one half bushel.....00-01-00
to two Brast Chaines and Apees and one Cleaver.. 00-16-00
to tooles and old Iron......... 01-07-00
to Brass But Saw.....00-07-00
to one barrel Sider..00-10-00
to Indian Corn..... 02-05-00
to A grind Stone.....00-05-00
( ) from Richard ( ).... 05-10-00
to two ( ) and two pichfork tynes......00-03-00
to Linning yarn and wooling Cotton wool
and Sheep wool:..... 04-10-00
to beding: and one feather bed bolster and pillowes. 08-00-00
to four sheets:..... 03-00-00
to new Cloath: Linning and woling......... 02-10-00
to one brass Kittel.... 02-00-00
to Hachet..... 00-01-08
to forty Acres of Land by york bridg..... 30-00-00
to puter:.... 01-06-00
to Spoones: woodin Trayes A ( )........ 03-00
to one Iron Kittel one pott one fryen pan one skillet
one tramel A pare of pot Hoks...... 01-01-00
to one Hamer one trowel pare of fire tongs: and som old
Iron and A pare of pincers..... 00-06-00
to A Chamber pot and: eight pounds flax....00-05-06
to four bushels pase:six bushels barley and A Cooler 02-01-00
to A barel and: half of beef.....02-10-00
to A ( )....00-08-00
to one bushel mault: one bushel Sault.... 00-06-00
to two Chests... 00-04-00
Peter O Grant
History of York, Maine- Banks, Vol.I, pp.206-9.
York Co. Court Records- Vol.II, p.205; Vol.III, p.42,p.54; Vol.IV, p.61.
Genealogical Dictionary of Maine & New Hampshire- p.721
York Deeds- Vol.4, p.159.
Mass. Archives- Vol.3, pp.385-6; Vol.11, pp.125-125a, p.127a;
York Co. Probate- I, 85; II, 66.
History and Genealogy of the Stackpole Family- pp.61-2.
Adriel Warren of Berwick, ME: His Forebears and Descendants- Vanetta Hosford Warren, Boston, 1969.
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society- Vol.LXI, pp.16-29.